New Mexico Civil War Timeline

1848 - The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ceded the land that would become New Mexico. However, New Mexico did not become a territory of the United States until the Compromise of 1850.

1860 - The U.S. Census documents 80,000 residents in the territory, mostly living along the major rivers: the Rio Grande, the Pecos, the Canadian.

March 2, 1861 - Texas becomes the 7th state to secede from the Union.

March 1861 - Baylor declares the portion of the territory below the 34th parallel to be the Confederate Territory of Arizona.

April 12, 1861 - Confederate forces fire on Fort Sumter. Lincoln declares war.

April 28, 1861 - Henry Hopkins Sibley resigns commission in the U.S. Army.

June 11, 1861 - Colonel Edward Richard Sprigg Canby takes over command of the U.S. Military Department of New Mexico.

Early July 1861 - Fort Bliss, near El Paso, is abandoned by Union forces. Sibley meets with Jefferson Davis and pursuades him to authorize a Confederate invasion of New Mexico Territory.

July 25, 1861 - Union Major Isaac Lynde abandons Fort Fillmore. He surrenders to Confederate Lt. Col. John Robert Baylor at San Augustine Pass on July 27th.

July 1861 - The new star fort at Fort Union takes shape, designed to block the Santa Fe Trail from Confederate advance.

September 9, 1861 - U.S. Territorial Governor Henry Connelly issues proclamation urging New Mexicans to arms.

Late October 1861 - Sibley has formed and trained a 3,200-man brigade of four regiments.

October 21, 1861 - Sibley's Brigade parades through San Antonio.The 7th Regiment of Texas Mounted Volunteers marches north and the rest of the brigade follows.

January 1862 - Union forces total 4,500, including 1,500 regulars and 3,000 volunteers and militia untested by battle.

February 7, 1862 - The 5th Regiment of Texas Mounted Volunteers heads towards Fort Craig and the Union Army.

February 9, 1862 - Canby sends the women of Fort Craig north.

February 16, 1862 - Confederate forces form line of battle and advance toward Fort Craig. Union's Canby stations battery of guns and howitzers outside south-facing walls. Confederates call off attack and withdraws.

February 19, 1862 - Sibley moves north to control ford at Valverde, hoping to draw Canby from fort.

February 20, 1862 - Canby's forces were driven back to Fort Craig to meet Confederate forces.

February 21, 1862 - Battle of Valverde, a tactical victory for the Confederacy, but Fort Craig remains in Union hands.

February 23, 1862 - Confederate forces break camp, leaving Union forces at their backs, and capture Socorro.

March 2, 1862 - Confederate forces enter Albuquerque. Union Army fires supply depot before abandoning.

March 3, 1862 - Confederacy captures Federal ammunition depot at Cubero.

March 4, 1862 - First reports of the Battle of Valverde reach Denver and galvanize Colorado Volunteers.

March 4, 1862 - Union garrison in Santa Fe evacuates to Fort Union. U.S. Governor Connelly moves territorial capital to Las Vegas, New Mexico.

March 11, 1862 - Colorado Regiment, under command of Col. John Slough, reaches Fort Union after a forced march from Denver.

March 13, 1862 - Confederate advance enters Santa Fe.

March 20, 1862 - Confederate column leaves Albuquerque, heading north.

March 22, 1862 - Slough's Union forces leave Fort Union and march toward Santa Fe.

March 25, 1862 - A second Confederate column leaves Santa Fe and heads toward Fort Union.

March 25, 1862 - Union forces arrive at Kozlowski's Ranch, at the eastern end of Glorieta Pass.

The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought on 26-28 March 1862, in northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the American Civil War. Dubbed the "Gettysburg of the West" by some historians, it was intended as the killer blow by Union forces to stop the Confederate invasion of the West along the base of the Rocky Mountains.

March 26, 1862 - Battle of Apache Canyon, a Union victory. Union Major John Chivington and 400 men fight Confederate Major Pyron's four companies. Union forces return to Pigeon's Ranch. Confederate forces set up camp at Johnson's Ranch.

March 27, 1862 - Confederate reinforcements reach Johnson's Ranch. Union reinforcements reach Kozlowski's Ranch.

March 28, 1862 - Battle of Pigeon's Ranch, a tactical victory for the Confederacy and logistical victory for the Union. Confederate forces advance and battle Union forces near Pigeon's Ranch. Chivington, with 400 men, slips around and destroys Confederate supplies.

April 7 1862 - Confederacy abandons Santa Fe.

April 8-9, 1862 - Union forces, under Canby, engage in feint attack against confederacy in Albuquerque, then withdraw east to meet up with force from Fort Union.

April 12, 1862 - Union forces reoccupy Santa Fe.

April 12, 1862 - Confederate forces abandon Albuquerque.

April 14, 1862 - Union forces from Fort Union meet up with forces from Fort Craig in the village of San Antonio and turn south toward Albuquerque.

April 15, 1862 - Battle of Peralta. The 5th Texas Mounted Volunteers, with 500 men, camp near Governor Connelly's ranch. Standoff skirmish with a few localized firefights. Confederate forces escape during dust storm.

Late April - Confederate forces retreat around the San Meteo Mountains to avoid Fort Craig.

May 1, 1862 - Confederate forces straggled into Mesilla. Sibley's Brigade, which started with some 3,200 men, is reduced to 1,500 men by the end of the campaign.

April 9, 1865 - The Confederacy surrenders at Appomattox Court House.

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